Printed Sources

Web Links

Books and Articles

Introduction to Brazilian Studies

  • Fausto, Boris. A Concise History of Brazil. New York: Cambridge, 1999.

  • Skidmore, Thomas. Brazil: Five Centuries of Change. New York: Oxford, 1999.

  • Candido, Antonio. On Literature and Society. Translated, edited, and introduced by Howard S. Becker. Princeton: Princeton, 1995.


    Contemporary Analysis

  • Buarque, Cristovam. The End of Economics? Ethics and the Disorder of Progress. London: Zed, 1993.

  • Cardoso, Ruth. Popular Movements in the Context of the Consolidation of Democracy. Notre Dame: Kellog Institute, 1989.

  • Faria, Vilmar. The Current Social Situation in Brazil: Dilemmas and Perspectives. Notre Dame: Kellog Institute, Democracy and Social Policy Series, 1994.

  • Fleischer, David. "The Difficult Road to Reform in Brazil: Elections, Governors, Exchange Rates, and CPIs." Public talk at the Center for Latin American Studies, May 7, 1999. See also Fleischer's weekly publication, Brazil Focus.

  • Lamounier, Bolivar and Amaury de Souza. "Changing Attitudes Toward Democracy and Institutional Reform in Brazil." In Larry Diamond, ed., Political Culture and Democracy in Developing Countries, pp. 295-326. Boulder, CO:Lynne Rienner, 1993.

  • Mainwaring, Scott. Rethinking Party Systems in the Third Wave of Democratization: The Case of Brazil. Stanford: Stanford, 1999.

  • Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism. Industrial, Technological, and Foreign Trade Policy: Competitive Restructuring and Expansion of the Brazilian Industrial System. Brazil: Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism, 1995.

  • Pinheiro, Paulo Sergio. Democratic Consolidation and Human Rights in Brazil. Notre Dame: Kellog Institute, 1998.

  • Weyland, Kurt. Democracy Without Equity: Failures of Reform in Brazil. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, c1996.


Brazilian Society in Translation

  • Azevedo, Fernando. Brazilian Culture. An Introduction to the Study of Culture in Brazil. New York: Macmillan, 1950.

  • Da Matta, Roberto. Carnivals, Rogues, and Heroes (Portuguese: Carnavais, malandros e herois): An Interpretation of the Brazilian Dilemma. Notre Dame: Notre Dame, 1991.

  • Da Matta, Roberto and David Hess (eds.) The Brazilian Puzzle: Culture on the Borderlands of the Western World. New York: Columbia, 1995.

  • Fernandes, Florestan. The Negro in Brazilian Society. New York: Atheneum, 1971 (1969).

  • Freyre, Gilberto. The Gilberto Freyre Reader. New York: Knopf, 1974.

  • Furtado, Celso. The Economic Growth of Brazil: A Survey from Colonial to Modern Times. Westport: Greenwood, 1984 (1963).

  • Pastore, Jose. Inequality and Social Mobility in Brazil. Madison: Wisconsin, 1982 (1979).


Additional Reading

  • Buarque de Holanda, Sergio. Raizes do Brasil.

  • Faoro, Raimundo. Os donos do poder.

  • Fernandes, Florestan. Revolucao burguesa no Brasil.

  • Freyre, Gilberto. The Masters and the Slaves (Portuguese: Casa Grande e Senzala): a Study in the Development of Brazilian Civilization. New York: Knopf, 1956.

  • Hagopian, Frances and Scott Mainwaring. "Democracy in Brazil: Problems and Prospects." World Policy Journal (Summer 1987): 485-514.

  • Lamounier, Bolivar. "Authoritarian Brazil Revisited: The Impact of Elections on the Abertura." In Alfred Stepan, ed., Democratizing Brazil, pp. 43-79. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

  • Mainwaring, Scott. "Politicians, Parties, and Electoral Systems: Brazil in Comparative Perspective." Comparative Politics 24 (October): 21-43 (1991).

  • Maxwell, Kenneth. "The Two Brazils," Wilson Quarterly (Winter 1999), pp. 50-60.

  • O Mundo do Trabalho. Edited volume, Sao Paulo: Scritta, 1994.

  • Prado Jr., Caio. Formacao economica do Brasil.

  • Skidmore, Thomas. Black into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

  • Wood, Charles H. and Jose Alberto Magno de Carvalho. The Demography of Inequality in Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.



  • Central Station, 1999.

Web Links




Research Institutes






Political Parties

  • PSDB (Social Democratic Party of Brazil)

  • PT (Workers' Party)

  • PPS (Socialist Party)


  • Amnesty Internacional

  • Greenpeace

  • Human Rights Watch

Challenges for Brazil

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