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Archila, Mauricio, Cultura y identidad obrera: Colombia 1910-45 (Bogota: CINEP, 1991). (This book is the Spanish translation of Archila's Ph.D. dissertation from the Statue University of New York at StonyBrook. See also articles by Archila.)

Arnson, Cynthia, ed. Comparative Peace Processes in Latin America, (Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Stanford UP 1999).

Bushnell, David. The Making of Modern Colombia: A Nation in Spite of Itself (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1993).

The Cambridge History of Latin America. (See chapters on Colombia.)

Chernik, Mark and Michael F. Jimenez. Article in book edited by Barry Carr and Steve Ellener, Latin American Left: from the fall of Allende to Perestroika (Boulder: West View Press, 1993).

Farnsworth-Alvear, Ann, Dulcinea in the Factory: Myths, Morals, Men and Women in Colombia's Industrial Experiment, 1905-1960 (Duke University Press, 1999 or 2000).

Jimenez, Michael. Forthcoming book from Duke University Press on coffee in Cundinamarca and the socio-economic history of Viota.

LeGrand, Catherine. "Living in Macondo: Economy and Culture in a United Fruit Company Banana Enclave in Colombia," in Close Encounters of Empire: Writing the Cultural History of U.S.-Latin American Relations, ed. Gilbert M. Joseph et al. (Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1998), pp. 333-368.

Melo, Jorge Orlando and Jesus Antonio Bejarano, eds. Nueva Historia de Colombia (Bogota: Planeta, 1989), 6 vols. Vol. II deals with political history from 1946-86 and vol. III focuses on international relations and social movements, including labor and agrarian history.

Palacios, Marco. See various writings. Writings of Marco Palacios

Pearce, Jenny. Colombia: Inside the Labyrinth (London: Latin American Bureau, 1990).

Pécaut, Daniel. See articles and books, mostly published in Spanish and French. Works focus on the period 1930 to the present.

Roldan, Mary. Article in Paul Gootenberg, ed., Cocaine: Global Histories (London: Routledge, 1999). On the social and cultural effects of the development of the drug economy on Medellin. Also by Roldan: forthcoming book on La Violencia in Antioquia (includes early history of paramilitaries).

Safford, Frank. (See articles on Liberal/Conservative divisions in the l9th century, l9th century attitudes toward Indians, etc. Also, see forthcoming book by Safford and Marco Palacios on Colombian history. See Safford's "Agrarian Systems and the State: The Case of Colombia," in Agrarian Structure and Political Power: Landlord and Peasant in the Making of Latin America, Evelyne Huber and Frank Safford, eds. (Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1995), pp. 151-176.

Sánchez, Gonzalo. "Guerra y política en la sociedad colombiana," Analysis Politico No. 11 (Sep. a Dic. 1990), 7-27.
Also published in Sánchez' book: Guerra y politica en la sociedad colombiana (Bogota: El Ancora editores, 1991); and in English in: International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society 14:1 (2000).

Sánchez, Gonzalo. "La Violencia in Colombia: New Research, New Questions," Hispanic American Historical Review 65:4 (1985).

Tovar, Bernardo, comp. La historia al final del milenio: ensayos de historiografia colombiana y latinoamericana, 2 vols. (Bogota: Universidad Nacional, 1994).

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Bergquist, Charles. "Colombia," in Labor in Latin America: Comparative Essays on Chile, Argentina, Venezuela and Colombia (Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1986), pp. 274-375.

Gilhodes, Pierre. See articles and books, including "Agrarian Struggles in Colombia," in Rodolfo Stavenhagen, ed. Agrarian Problems and Peasant Movements in Latin America (Garden City, N.Y., 1970).

London, Christopher. M.A. thesis on the National Federation of Coffee Growers (Cornell University, Dept. of Rural Sociology).

Palacios, Marco. El café en Colombia, 1850-1970, Una historia económica, social y política, (Bogotá, Editorial Presencia, 1979). Published in Eglish in: the Cambridge Latin American Studies Series.

Posada-Carbó, Eduardo. The Colombian Caribbean; A Regional History, 1870-1950 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996). In Spanish: El Caribe colombiano (Bogotá, El Ancora Editores, 1998).

Rausch, Jane. A Tropical Place Frontier, (University of New Mexico Press, 1984); and The Llanos Frontier in Colombian History, 1830-1930, (Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press, 1993).

On colonization of public lands and associated conflicts:

LeGrand, Catherine. Frontier Expansion and Peasant Protest in Colombia, 1850-1936 (Albuquerque: Univ. of New Mexico Press, 1986) and "Colonization and Violence in Colombia: Perspectives and Debates," Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, vol. 14, no. 28 (1989), 5-30. Published in Spanish in Minagricultura 80 anos: El agro y la cuestión social (Bogotá: Tercer Mundo, 1994). This article attempts to relate LeGrand's findings on colonization for the earlier period to contemporary conflicts. The book is summarized in "Labor Acquisition and Social Conflict on the Colombian Frontier, 1850-1936," Journal of Latin American Studies vol. 16 part 1 (May 1984), 27-49.

Molano, Alfredo. Selva adentro (Bogotá, 1987); Siguiendo el corte: relatos de guerras y de tierras (Bogotá: El Ancora, 1989); Trochas y fusiles (Bogotá: IEPRI y El Ancora, 1994). On colonization of the eastern plains and the southern jungle regions, origins of FARC and relation to drug production. Selva adentro is an oral history of the colonization of Guaviare, coca production and FARC.

Pizarro Leongómez, Eduardo, Los FARC (1949-66): de la autodefensa a la combinacion de todas las formas de lucha (Bogotá: IEPRI y Tercer Mundo, 1991). Important interpretation of the origins of FARC. This book is summarized in "Los origenes del movimiento armado comunista en Colombia (1949-1966)," Análisis Político no. 7 (Mayo-Agosto 1989), 7-31.

On agrarian issues since 1960:

Bejarano, Ana Maria, "La violencia regional y sus protagonistas: el caso de Urabá," Análisis Político no. 4 (mayo-agosto 1988), 43-61.

Machado, Absalon. "Reforma agraria o reforma rural?", Análisis Político No. 40 (May/August 2000), 82-95. On potential rural reform today and how it differs from the "classical" agrarian reforms of the 1935- 70 period.

Medina Gallego, Carlos. Autodefensas, paramilitares y narcotráfico en Colombia: Origen, desarrollo y consolidación. El Caso Puerto Boyacá (Bogotá: Editorial Documentos Periodisticos, 1990). Case study of the consolidation of paramilitaries in Puerto Boyacá in the Magdalena Medio region; focus on land issues and colonization.

Reyes, Alejandro. See "La violencia y el problema agrario en Colombia," Analisis Politico no. 2 (Sep.-Dic. 1987), 30-46; and Reyes y Ana Maria Bejarano, "Conflictos agrarios y luchas armadas en la Colombia contemporanea: una vision geográfica," Análisis Político no. 5 (Sept-dic. 1988), 6-27, among other articles. On the regionalization of the conflicts and on the relation between social movements and the guerrilla.

Richani, Nazih, "The Political Economy of Violence: The War-System in Colombia," Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 39:2 (summer 1997), 37-81. On agrarian dimensions of the current struggle between guerrilleros and paramilitaries.

Zamosc, Leon. The Agrarian Question and the Peasant Movement in Colombia: Struggles of the National Peasant Association, 1967-1981 (Cambridge, 1986). Study by an Argentina sociologist of the difficulty of forming a national peasant organization.

___________. "The Political Crisis and Prospects for Rural Democratization in Colombia," Journal of Development Studies 25:4 (July 1990), 44-78.

_________. "Transformaciones agrarias y luchas campesinas en Colombia: un balance retrospectivo (1950-1990)," Análisis Político No. 15 (enero a abril 1992), 35-66.

Other fine writers on the agrarian history of the 20th century include Jesus Antonio Bejarano, Hermes Tovar Pinzón, Darío Fajardo, Gonzalo Sánchez, Donny Meertens, and Carlos Ortiz Sarmiento.

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COLOMBIAN VIOLENCE, past and present

Bergquist, Charles, Peñaranda, Ricardo and Sánchez, Gonzalo, eds., Violence in Colombia: The Contemporary Crisis in Historical Perspective (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1992). Collection of essays connecting the civil wars of the 19th century to the Violencia of the 1950s to the new violence of the 1980s.

___________ (same editors as above), Violence in Colombia, 1990-2000: Waging War and Negotiating Peace (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 2001).

Braun, Herbert, The Assassination of Gaitan: Public Life and Urban Violence in Colombia (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985). Also published in Spanish. See also Braun's book about the guerrilla kidnapping of his brother-in-law in Colombia.

Comisión de Estudios sobre la Violencia, Colombia: Violencia y democracia: informe presentado al Ministerio de Gobierno (Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 1987). Diagnosis of the contemporary violence by a commission of intellectuals (who later came to be known as the "violentologos"). They argue that multiple forms of violence are occuring simultaneously. Very important for understanding the violence of the 1980s and 90s and Colombian interpretations of it.

Deas, Malcolm, "Interpretation of the Recent Colombian Violence," in David Apter, ed., The Legitimization of Violence (Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press, 1997). Also published in Spanish in Colombia.

Francisco Leal Buitrago, "Surgimiento, auge y crisis de la doctrina de seguridad nacional en América Latina y colombia," Análisis Político No. 15 (enero a abril 1992), 6-34. On the formation and ideological outlook of the Colombian military. The author and Eduardo Pizarro Leongomez have written books on the history of the Colombian military since World War II. Pizarro has several articles on the "professionalization" of the military in Análisis Político, nos. 2 and 3 (Sept-Dic. 1987 and enero a abril 1988).

Oquist, Paul, Violence, Conflict and Politics in Colombia (N.Y.: Academic Press, 1980). On the violencia of the 1950s.

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de Friedmann, Nina. See work on Afro-Colombians.

Escobar, Arturo, "Cultural Politics and Biological Diversity: State, Capital and Social Movements in the Pacific coast of Colombia," in Between Resistance and Reovlution: Cultural Politics and Social Protest, ed. Richard G. Fox and Orin Starn (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. press, 1997), pp. 40-64.

Gros, Christian. Colombia indígena: identidad cultural y cambio social (Bogotá: Fondo Ed. CEREC, 1991).

Rappaport, Joanne. See various writings.

Van Cott, Donna Lee, "A Political Analysis of Legal Pluralism in Bolivia and Colombia," Journal of Latin American Studies vol. 32 pt. 1 (Feb. 2000). On the constitutional reforms of the 1990s and native people.

Wade, Peter. Blackness and Race Mixture: The Dynamics of Racial Identity in Colombia (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1993).

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Arango, M. and Jorge Child, Narcotrafico: Imperio de la cocaina (Medellin: Editorial Percepcion, 1984) pp. 15-150.

Bagley, B.M. The State and the Peasantry in Contemporary Colombia, (Madville, PA: Allegheny College, Latin American Issues Monograph Series, No. 6, 1989), 86 p.

Bagley, B. and J. Tokatlian, "Colombian Froeign Policy in the 1980s: The Search for Leverage," JISWA, Vol. 27, No. 3, (Fall 1985), pp. 27-62.

Bagley, B. "Colombia and the War on Drugs," Foreign Affairs, (Fall 1988) pp. 70-92.

Craig, R. "Domestic Implications of Illicit Colombia Drug Production and Trafficking," JISWA Vol. 25, No. 3 (1983) pp. 213-230.

Dix, Robert. The Politics of Colombia (New York: Praeger, 1987) 250 p.

Gugliotta, G. and J. Leen, Kings of Cocaine (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989), 344 p.

Hobsbawn, Eric. "Murderous Colombia," The New York Review of Books, (1986), pp.

Pardo, R. and J. Tokatlian, Politica Exterior Colombiana, De la Subordinacion a la Autonomia (Bogota: Tercer Mundo y Uniandes, 1988) pp. 113-237.

Perez Gomez, Augusto. Historia de la drogadiccion en Colombia, (Bogota: Ediciones Tercer Mundo and Ediciones UNIANDES, 1988) pp. 9-132.

Thoumi, F. "Some Implications of the Growth of the Underground Economy in Colombia," JISWA, Vol. 29, No. 2, (Summer 1987), pp. 35-48.

Tokatlian, Juan G. and Bruce Bagley, Economia y Politica del Narcotrafico (Bogota: CEREC, 1991) pp. 57-150.

Tokatlian, J. "National Security and Drugs: Their Impact on Colombian-US Relations" JISWA, Vol. 30, No. 1 (Spring 1988) pp. 133-161.


Arango J., M. Impacto del narcotrafico en Antioquia (Medellin: Editorial J.M. Arango, 1988).

Arrieta, Carlos G. Narcotrafico en Colombia (Bogota, Colombia: Tercer Mundo Editores, 1990).

Bagley, Bruce. "The Colombian Connection" in Pacini and Franquemont, eds., pp. 89-101.

Bejarano, Jorge. Nuevos capitulos sobre el cocaismo en Colombia (Bogota: Universidad Nacional, 1952).

Camacho G., A. Droga, corrupcion y poder: Marihuana y cocaina en la sociedad Colombiana (Cali: U. del Valle, 1981).

Camacho G., A. Droga y Sociedad en Colombia: El Poder y Estigua (Bogota: U. del Valle and CEREC, 1988).

Eddy, P. The Cocaine Wars (New York: W.W. Norton, 1988).

GAO, "Drug Control: US-Supported Efforts in Colombia and Bolivia," (Washington, DC: GAO/NSIAD-89-24, November 1988).

Jaramillo, J.E. Colonizacion, coca, y guerrilla (Bogota: Alianza Editorial Colombiana, 3 ed., 1989).

Molano, A. Selva Adentro (Bogota: El Ancora, 1987).

Perez G., A. Cocaina: Surgimiento y Evolucion de un Mito (Bogota: Catalogo Cientifico, 1987).

Perez de Barrades, I. "Antiguedad del uso de la coca en Colombia," Revista de la Academia Colomibana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, No. 3, pp. 323-326. (1940).

Presidencia de la Republica, La lucha contra el narcotrafico en Colombia (Bogota: Presidencia de la Republica, October, 1988).

Schultes, R.E. "Coca in the Northwest Amazon," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, No. 3, pp. 173-194 (1981).

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The Domestic Roots Of Colombian Foreign Policy


Bagley, Bruce Michael. "Colombian Politics: Continuity or Breakdown," Current History (January 1987).

Bagley, Bruce Michael. "National Front and Economic Development," in Robert Wesson, ed., Politics, Policies and Economic Development in Latin America (Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1984), pp. 124-160.

Hartlyn, Jonathyn. The Politics of Coalition Rule in Colombia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 239 p.


Berry, R. Albert et al, eds. Politics of Compromise: Coalition Government in Colombia (New Brunswick: Transacion 1980).

Dix, Robert. Colombia: The Political Dimensions of Change (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967).

Dix, Robert. The Politics of Colombia (New York: Praeger 1987) 247 p.

Leal Buitrago, Francisco. Política y Estado en Colombia (Bogotá: Siglo XXI, 1986).

The Historical Roots Of Colombian Foreign Policy


Randall, Stephan S. Colombia and the United States (Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press, 1992), pp. 1-266.


Bushnell, David. "Colombia," in H. E. Davis and L. Wilson, eds., Latin American Foreign Policies: An Analysis (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), pp. 401-418.

Cepeda Ulloa, Fernando, and Christopher Mitchell. "The Trend Towards Technocracy: The World Bank and the International Labor Organization in Colombian Politics", in R.A. Berry et. al, eds. Politics of Compromise: Coalition Government in Colombia (New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1980), pp. 237-256.

Coletta, Paolo. "William Jennings Bryan and the United States-Colombia Impasse, 1903-1921," in HAHR, Vol. 47, No. 4 (1967).

Drake, Paul W. The Origins of United States Economic Supremacy in South America: Colombia's Dance of the Millions 1923-33 (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center, Working Papers No. 40, 1979.).

Drekonja, Gerhard. "Colombia - Learning the Foreign Policy Process," Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 25, 2 (May 1983), pp. 229-50.

Favell, T.R. The Antecedents of Panama's Separation from Colombia: A Study in Colombian Politics (Boston: Tufts University, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 1951).

Lad, Richard L. Arrogant Diplomacy: U.S. Policy toward Colombia, 1903-1922 (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1987).

Maullin, Richard. "The Colombian-IMF Disagreement of Nov.-Dec. 1996: An Interpretation of its Place in Colombian Politics," in Yale H. Ferguson, ed., Contemporary Inter-american Relations: A Reader in Theory and Issues (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1972), pp. 51-60.

Randall, Stephen J. The Diplomacy of Modernization: Colombian-American Relations, 1920-1940 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977).

Rippy, F.J. The Capitalists and Colombia (New York; 1931).

Taylor Parks, E. Colombia and the United States, 1765-1934 (Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, 1935).

Tirado Mejía, Alvaro. Colombia en la repartición imperialista (Medellín: Editorial Oveja Negra, 1976).

Vásquez Carrizosa, Alfredo. Colombia y los problemas del mar (Bogotá: Imprenta Nacional 1971).

Colombian Foreign Policy in the 1980s and 1990s


Bagley, Bruce Michael. "Colombia and the War on Drugs," Foreign Affairs, 67, 1 (Fall 1988), pp. 70-92.

Bagley, Bruce Michael. "Colombia: The Wrong Strategy," Foreign Policy, No. 77 (Winter 1989-90) pp. 154-171.

Bagley, Bruce Michael and J.G. Tokatlian, "Colombian Foreign Policy in the 1980s: The Search for Leverage," JISWA, 27, 3 (Fall 1985), pp. 27-62.

Pardo, Rodrigo and Juan G. Tokatlian, Política Exterior Colombiana -De la subordinación a la autonomía? (Bogotá: Tercer Mundo, 1988), 237 p.


Bagley, B.M. "The New Hundred Years War? U.S. National Security and the War on Drugs in Latin America," JISWA, 30, 1, (Spring 1988), pp. 161-186.

Bagley, B.M. and J. G. Tokatlian, eds., La Economía Política del Narcotráfico en Colombia (Bogotá: CEREC - Universidad de los Andes, 1989).

Bagley, Bruce Michael. "Colombia en el Caribe: El Nuevo Aliado Norteamericano?" in Juan Tokatlian y Klaus Schubert, eds., Relaciones Internacionales en la Cuenca del Caribe y la Política de Colombia (Bogotá: FESCOL and Camora de Comercio de Bogotá, 1982), pp. 371-390.

Boyce, James E. and Francois J. Lombard, Colombia's Treatment of Foreign Banks: A Precedent Setting Case? (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1976), 56 p.

Drekonja, G. "Colombia en el Caribe," in Ibid. pp. 391-406.

Drekonja Kornat, Gerhard. Colombia: Política Exterior (Bogot´: Universidad de los Andes, FESCOL, La Editora Ltda., 1982, 169 p.

Drekonja, G. and Fernando Cepeda, "Colombia," in G. Drekonja and J. G. Tokatlian (eds.) Teoría y Práctica de la Política Exterior Latino-Americana, (Bogotá: UNIANDES, CEREC, PESCOL, 1983), pp. 239-266.

Jaramillo, German. "Colombia Frente al Plan Reagan," in Ibid, pp. 417-428.

Kline, Harvey. Exxon and Colombian Coal: An Analysis of the North Cerrejón Debates (Amerherst: Univ. of Mass., Program in American Studies, Occasional Papers Series No. 14, 1982), 44 pp.

Lozano de Rey, Ester y Pilar Manulanda da Galofre, Como se hace la Política Exterior Colombiana (Bogotá: Tercer Mundo, 1982), 139 p.

Millet, Richard. "Colombia Re-enters the Caribbean: A Report from Bogotá," in Caribbean Studies Newsletter, Vol. 8, No. 2 (1981).

Premo, Daniel. "Colombia: Cool Friendship" in R. Wesson; ed., op. cit., pp. 102-119.

Tokatlian, Juan G. "National Security and Drugs: Their Impact on U.S.-Colombian Relations," JISWA, 30, 1 (Spring 1988), pp. 133-160.

Urrutia M., Miguel. "Colombia and the Andean Group: Economic and Political Determinants of Regional Integration Policy," in Werner Baer and M. Gillis, eds., Export Diversification and The New Protectionism: The Experience of Latin America (Champaign, Illinois: University of Illinois, 1981), pp. 182-198.

Vásquez Carrizosa, Alfredo. "Relaciones Exteriores de Colombia" Revista Janouara, No. 87, (1974).

von Gleich, A. and Diego Pizano, Compiladores, Colombia en la Economía Mundial (Bogotá: Carlos Valencia editores, 1982).

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