Federation of Labor
Environment Cooperation Commission
for Environmental Cooperation
new institution created by the North American Agreement on
Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). The CEC is governed by a
council composed of Cabinet-level appointees, one from each
of the three member countries, who have domestic responsibility
for environmental protection. The affairs of the CEC are administered
by a full-time secretariat located in Montreal, under the direction
of an executive director. The CEC also receives ongoing advice
and information from the Joint Public Advisory Committee (JPAC)
composed of 15 citizens, five from each of the three NAFTA
countries. The CEC is intended to foster cooperation among
the parties on hemispheric environmental issues and to be an
resident of the three member countries may file a submission
with the Secretariat claiming that a party “is failing to effectively
enforce its environmental laws.” After considering the case,
the Council may recommend that a factual record be prepared.
The Council is not empowered to give recommendations or take
any specified action against the offending country.
Centro Internacional para Mejoramiento del Maíz y Trigo
Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
organization which conducts research on corn and wheat with
the goal of eliminating world hunger. Among other
projects, it stores maize and wheat genetic resources — including
rare, heirloom seeds — from all over the world.
this chapter deals with foreign direct
investment. It was intended to
protect foreign investors from discriminatory treatment by the
host government including expropriation or actions “tantamount
to expropriation.” Corporations have used the vague wording
of the treaty to sue the governments of all three member countries
for passing environmental laws that threaten their profitability.
countries agree to abolish tariffs and quotas among members;
establish common external tariffs and quotas; and allow free
movement of goods, services and workers
labor umbrella organization. Closely
affiliated with the PRI.
ability to produce a good at lower cost, relative to other goods,
compared to another country. With perfect competition and undistorted
markets, countries tend to export goods in which they have comparative
Consejo de Médicos y Parteras Indígenas Tradicionales de Chiapas
of Traditional Indigenous Doctors and Midwives from Chiapas)
Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad
Commission on Biodiversity)
countries agree to abolish tariffs and quotas among members
and establish common external tariffs and quotas
States Free Trade Agreement
free trade agreement between the United
States and Canada that was enacted
in 1989. Later became the basis for NAFTA.
price that is “unfairly low,” defined as either below the home market price
or below cost, thus undercutting local producers
in the economic standard of living of a country’s population, normally
accomplished by increasing its stocks of physical and human capital and
improving its technology.
fast track legislation, the U.S. Congress has to approve or reject commercial
treaties in their entirety, without introducing amendments. Clinton
was unable to renew fast track authorization in 1997. In December
of 2001, Congress voted 215 to 214 to grant Bush fast track authority.
Frente Auténtico del Trabajo
of independent labor unions.
Acquisition or construction of physical capital by a firm from
one (source) country in another (host) country.
group of countries that adopt free trade (zero tariffs and
no other restrictions on trade) on trade among themselves,
while not necessarily changing the barriers that each member
country has on trade with the countries outside the group.
Trade Area of the Americas
idea for the FTAA was launched at the 1994 Summit of the Americas.
An FTAA would join all the Western Hemisphere states except Cuba in
a trade agreement to be concluded no later than 2005. The drafts
of the FTAA have used the WTO Agreement and NAFTA as a basis
for the new agreement. The current draft contains no side agreements
on labor and the environment.
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
multilateral treaty entered into in 1948 by the intended members
of the International Trade Organization, the purpose of which
was to implement many of the rules and negotiated tariff reductions
that would be overseen by the ITO. With the failure of the
ITO to be approved, the GATT became the principal institution
regulating trade policy until it was subsumed within the WTO
Collaborative Biodiversity Group–Maya
A U.S. government-funded
project aimed at the bioprospecting of
the medicinal plants and traditional knowledge of the Maya.
organization formed originally to help countries to stabilize
exchange rates, but today pursuing a broader agenda of financial
stability and assistance. As of July 2000, it had 182 member
American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation
environmental side agreement to NAFTA brokered in 1992-93 by
Pres. Clinton to consolidate support for NAFTA in Congress.
American Agreement on Labor Cooperation
American Commission for Environmental Cooperation
American Customs Union
American Development Bank
American Free Trade Agreement
agreement to form a free trade area United States, Canada,
and Mexico that went into effect January 1, 1994. Based on
the 1989 CUSFTA agreements.
American Free Trade Agreement–Transitional Adjustment Assistance
program designed to provide training for workers displaced
by trade or the flight of jobs, and to reinsert them into
the U.S. economy.
Resources Defense Council
Any policy that interferes with exports or imports other than
a simple tariff,
prominently including quotas and
voluntary export restraints.
Partido Acción Nacional
Partido de la Revolución Democrática
of the Democratic Revolution)
Partido de la Revolución Institucional
(Institutional Revolutionary Party)
Dumping for the purpose of driving competitors
out of business and then raising price.
among members of a free trade area that determine which products
can be transferred duty-free. In the case of NAFTA, a product
has to have been substantially transformed so that a change
in tariff classification has occurred, or it must have 50 percent
(62.5 percent for cars) member-country content.
Secretaría de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca
of the Environment, Natural Resources and Fishing)
de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
for the Environment and Natural Resources)
that meets the economic, environmental, and social needs of
the present while protecting the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs.
of Mexican Workers
group of independent labor unions in Mexico.
The round of
multilateral trade negotiations under the GATT that
commenced in 1986 and was completed in 1994 with the creation
of the WTO. In
addition it broke new ground by negotiating over agriculture, textiles and
of the U.S. Trade Representative
A global international organization that specifies and enforces
rules for the conduct of international trade policies and
serves as a forum for negotiations to reduce barriers to
trade. Formed in 1995 as the successor
to the GATT,
it had 136 member countries as of April 2000.