Science Content Standards
Students describe the social, political, cultural,
and economic life and interactions among people of
California from the pre-Columbian societies to the
Spanish mission and Mexican rancho periods.
4.2.2 Identify the early land and sea routes to, and
European settlements in, California with a focus on the
exploration of the North Pacific (e.g., by Captain James
Cook, Vitus Bering, Juan Cabrillo), noting especially
the importance of mountains, deserts, ocean currents
and wind patterns.
4.2.3 Describe the Spanish exploration and colonization
of California , including the relationships among soldiers,
missionaries, and Indians (e.g., Juan Crespi, Junipero
Serra, Gaspar de Portola).
4.2.4 Describe the mapping of, geographic basis of,
and economic factors in the placement and function of
the Spanish missions; and understand how the mission
system expanded the influence of Spain and Catholicism
throughout New Spain and Latin America .
4.2.5 Describe the daily lives of the people, native
and nonnative, who occupied the presidios, missions,
ranchos, and pueblos.
4.2.6 Discuss the role of the Franciscans in changing
the economy of California from a hunter-gatherer economy
to an agricultural economy.
4.2.7 Describe the effects of the Mexican War for Independence
on Alta California, including its effects on the territorial
boundaries of North America.
4.2.8 Discuss the period of Mexican rule in California
and its attributes, including land grants, secularization
of the missions, and the rise of the rancho economy.
Students explain the economic, social, and political
life in California from the establishment of the
BearFlagRepublic through the Mexican-American War,
the Gold Rush, and the granting of statehood.
Identify the locations of Mexican settlements in California
and those of other settlements, including Fort Ross
and Sutter’s Fort.
4.3.2 Compare how and why people traveled to California
and the routes they traveled (e.g., James Beckwourth,
John Bidwell, John C. Fremont, Pio Pico).
4.3.3 Analyze the effects of the Gold Rush on settlements,
daily life, politics, and the physical environment (e.g.
using biographies of John Sutter, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo,
4.3.5 Discuss how California became a state and how
its new government differed from those during the Spanish
and Mexican periods.
Students explain how California became an agricultural
and industrial power, tracing the transformation
of the California economy and its political and cultural
development since the 1850s.
4.4.2 Explain how the Gold Rush transformed the economy
of California, including the types of products produced
and consumed, changes in towns (e.g., Sacramento, San
Francisco), and economic conflicts between diverse groups
4.4.1 Understand the story and lasting influence of
the Pony Express, Overland Mail Service, Western Union,
and the building of the transcontinental railroad, including
the contributions of Chinese workers to its construction.
4.4.4 Describe rapid American immigration, internal
migration, settlement, and the growth of towns and cities
(e.g., Los Angeles).
Students analyze U.S. foreign policy in the early
8.5.2 Know the changing boundaries of the United States
and describe the relationship the country had with its
neighbors (current Mexico and Canada) and Europe, including
the influence of the Monroe Doctrine, and how those relationships
influenced westward expansion and the Mexican-American
8.6 Students analyze the divergent paths of
the American people from 1800 to the mid-1800s and
the challenges they faced with emphasis on the Northeast.
8.6.1 Discuss the influence of industrialization and
technological developments on the region, including human
modification of the landscape and how physical geography
shaped human actions (e.g. growth of cities, deforestation,
farming, mineral extraction).
8.6.2 Outline the physical obstacles to and the economic
and political factors involved in building a network
of roads, canals, and railroads.
Students analyze the divergent paths of the American
people in the West from 1800 to the mid-1800s and
the challenges they faced.
8.8.2 Describe the purpose, challenges, and economic
incentives associated with westward expansion, including
the concept of Manifest Destiny and the territorial expansion
that spanned numerous decades.
8.8.5 Discuss Mexican settlements and their locations,
cultural traditions, attitudes toward slavery, land-grant
system, and economies.
8.8.6 Describe the Texas War for Independence and the
Mexican-American War, including the territorial settlements,
the aftermath of the wars, and the effects the wars had
on the lives of Americans, including Mexican Americans
Students analyze the early and steady attempts to
abolish slavery and to realize the ideals of the
Declaration of Independence.
Discuss the importance of the slavery issue as raised
by the annexation of Texas and California’s
admission to the union as a free state under the Compromise
Students analyze the transformation of the American
economy and the changing social and political conditions
in the United States in response to the Industrial
8.12.1 Trace patterns of agricultural and industrial
development as they relate to climate, use of natural
resources, markets, and trade and locate such developments
on a map.
8.12.2 Identify the reasons for the development of federal
Indian policy and the wars with American Indians and
their relationship to agricultural development and industrialization.
8.12.4 Discuss entrepreneurs, industrialists, and bankers
in politics, commerce, and industry (e.g., Andrew Carnegies,
John D. Rockefeller, Leland Stanford).
8.12.5 Examine the location and effects of urbanization,
renewed immigration, and industrialization (e.g., the
effects on social fabric of cities, wealth and economic
opportunity, the conservation movement).